1. MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION:
The medium of instruction and examinations shall be English (Except Faculty of Islamic and Oriental learning, which shall be in Urdu or their relevant subject language).
2. DURATION OF THE COURSE:
2.1 The duration for the Degree of PhD shall be 3 to 8 years in full residence as well as for the university employee admitted as part time students.
2.2 The employees of the government/ other agencies nominated for Ph.D. degree at this University shall have to take study leave to pursue studies as a regular student, failing which she shall not be admitted. However, after getting admission by a nominee in the university, it would be obligatory for the parent department to sanction the study leave or extension in the leave in favour of the nominee within one semester failing which her admission shall stand cancelled.
3. DURATION OF THE SEMESTER:
There shall be 2 semesters (Fall and Spring) of 18 weeks each in an academic year. The commencement of semesters shall be regulated by the Academic Council. (Explanation: Out of 18 weeks, 16 weeks shall be actual teaching time; the rest may be utilized for enrollment, conduct of examinations and declaration of results, etc.)
4. SUBJECTS OF STUDY:
The subjects of study for the degree programmes are given in schedule -III, which may be amended from time to time. A student shall present an acceptable thesis in addition to completing her approved course work and comprehensive examination in order to qualify for the award of the degree.
5. MINIMUM REQUIREMENT FOR THE VARIOUS DEGREE PROGRAMMES:
5.1 A student admitted to the PhD degree programme shall take minimum 22 credit hours followed by Comprehensive Examination. She will have to defend PhD synopsis and thesis. Deficiency course(s) shall not be counted toward the minimum credit hours requirement.
5.2 Public thesis defense is mandatory. The University will notify in advanced the date, time and venue of the event.
6. ROUTING OF ACADEMIC MATTERS:
All the academic matters should be routed through the proper channel i.e. through the Chairperson /Incharge of the Department/Director and Principal /Dean/Coordinator of the faculty concerned.
7. DEFICIENCY COURSES:
If the course(s) studied by a candidate in her previous degree (on the basis of which admission is requested) does not provide adequate background for the degree programme of study, she may be required to make up the deficiency by taking additional course(s) as determined by the respective departmental Board of Studies.
8. UNIVERSITY EMPLOYEES:
8.1 The Academic Staff: A teacher / researcher of the GCW University Faisalabad (regular) may be allowed to enroll herself for post graduate courses after getting permission from the competent authority under prescribed rules of the university. She under this arrangement will be a part time student and a full time employee. She will be allowed to enroll maximum of two courses and one seminar or special problem. She would be reimbursed 50% of the total fee except admission fee, registration fee, library security and examination fee. In case she intends to take maximum credit hours allowed to a full time student then she will have to take study leave from the University as per rules and pay full dues.
8.2 Administrative Staff: The administrative staff (only female) of the GCW University Faisalabad (regular) will be treated at par for admission to various post graduate courses under evening programme after getting permission from the Competent Authority under prescribed rules of the University. She will take maximum of two courses, one seminar or special problem. She would be reimbursed 50% of the total fee except admission fee, registration fee, library security and examination fee. She under this arrangement will be a part time student and a fulltime employee. In case, she intends to take maximum credit hours or take morning course, she will have to take study leave from the university as per rules and pay full dues. However, the number of seats for admission to various degree programmes for administrative staff might be fixed by the Vice Chancellor.
Rules & Regulations PhD Programme
9.1 An application for enrollment on the prescribed form (Course Registration Form, GS-10), accompanied by proof of fee payment (bank receipt) shall be presented to the office of the Director Advanced Studies on the day(s) notified for enrollment.
9.2 The Director Advanced Studies under special circumstances and on payment of late fee prescribed for this purpose may permit a student to enroll within ten days after the commencement of the classes.
9.3 The Vice Chancellor may allow a student to be enrolled till the last day of the 4th week after the commencement of classes under special circumstances, in individual cases and for reasons to be recorded, with double late fee prescribed for this purpose.
9.4 Enrollment in absentia is not allowed. Student is required to be present in person with a proof of identification (University Identity Card or Computerized National Identity Card etc.) for enrollment.
9.5 Enrollment will only be considered complete when Course Registration Form (GS-10) is submitted to the office of the Director, Advanced Studies. Only depositing of fee will not serve the purpose.
9.6 A candidate admitted to a degree programme shall so long as she has not submitted thesis, has to enroll for each semester.
9.7 The students who will enroll in 9th and 10th semesters will have to pay additional fee of 50% and 100%, respectively over and above the regular fee.
10. DISCONTINUATION / FREEZING OF STUDY / SEMESTER:
10.1 A student may discontinue enrolled semester before appearing in the final examination with the permission of the Vice Chancellor obtained through the Directorate of Advanced Studies on the recommendations of the Dean/Coordinator/Director / Principal because of sickness duly certified by the University Medical Officer or due to any circumstances beyond her control.
10.2 The facility of discontinuation can be availed only once during the whole degree programme.
10.3 A student so permitted to discontinue is required to resume her studies from next semester on the recommendation of Chairperson/Incharge/ Director/ Principal/ Dean/Coordinator concerned and notified by the Registrar.
10.4 A Candidate shall not ordinarily be allowed to discontinue studies during the first semester
10.5 During the semester freeze, bonafide status of the student shall remain suspended. She will not be entitled to avail any privilege as that of a regular student.
10.6 An HEC fellowship awardee will be allowed to join a training programme with the condition that her training would not disturb her enrollment in the University and will remain intact. On her returning and rejoining the University, she would have to meet the enrollment formalities (Ex-post- facto) of this period (the whole period of HEC scholarship) and it would also be included in the period of residential requirements of the scholar.
11.1 If a student fails to enroll in any semester(s) without permission of the Competent Authority, she shall cease to be on the rolls of the University and in case she desires readmission, she shall have to apply for re-admission.
11.2 The office of Director Advanced Studies on the recommendation of the Dean/Coordinator and by the permission of the Competent Authority may re-admit such a candidate subject to payment of Rs.1000/- as readmission fee in addition to the regular semester fee. Re-admission will be allowed only if a student can maintain 75% attendance in the admitted semester.
11.3 The Dean/Coordinator may refuse the re-admission if the reasons presented are not convincing. Note: The period of gap semester will not be counted towards residential requirements.
12. SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE:
12.1 a. The Supervisory Committee of a student shall be proposed by the respective Board of Studies of the Department/Institute during 1st semester.
b. Supervisory Committee shall consist of two teachers from the major field of study and one from the minor/elective field of study. However
Rules & Regulations PhD Programme
, if an outstanding specialist in a major or minor/elective field of study is available outside the University, she may be taken as a member of
the Supervisory Committee in place of a teacher or as an additional member.
c. Supervisor of the student will act as Chairperson of the Supervisory Committee.
d. Supervisory Committee proposed by the respective Board of Studies and recommended by the Chairperson /Incharge/Director of the Institute/ Principal and Dean/Coordinator of the faculty concerned, shall be approved by the Board of Advanced Studies and Research and notified by the Director Advanced Studies.
Supervisory Committee may be revised according to the regulation (12.1 (a) to (d)) with the reasons of change to be recorded.
12.2 In case, a student duly recommended by the Chairperson/Incharge and Dean/Coordinator/Director/ Principal concerned to conduct her com- plete/part of
thesis research in other institution/laboratory, is allowed by the Director Advanced Studies. The helping scientist may be taken as Supervisor-II/Special Member on the Supervisory Committee of the student. However, the university will not bear any financial liability in this context.
12.3 The Professor Emeritus may act as Supervisor/member of Supervisory Committee of postgraduate students if she is stationed at Faisalabad.
12.4 Foreign Faculty members, HEC National Professors/HEC Eminent Scientists may act as Supervisor/member of the Supervisory Committee provided that they are appointed at this University for three years.
12.5 Retired teachers of the GCW University Faisalabad may continue as Supervisor/member of the Supervisory Committee to their previous postgraduate students if they had supervised the student up to the approval of the synopsis. However, on re-employment for three years they may be given supervision of a new student.
12.6 Adhoc/contract teachers may act as Supervisor/member of the Supervisory Committee only where there is a shortage of regular faculty members. Faculty on Tenure Track System (TTS) / Interim Placement of Fresh Ph.D. Programme (IPFP) will be considered as regular faculty for the subject purpose.
12.7 HEC rules shall be followed for allowing the maximum number of Ph.D. students under one supervisor, which states as under;
a. The maximum number of Ph.D. students under the supervision of a full time faculty member, will normally be 5 which may be increased to 8 under special circumstances in teaching departments subject to the prior approval of the Higher Education Commission.
b. Eminent faculty/scientists such as HEC Distinguished Professors, Fellow of Royal Societies (FRS) and those who have cumulative impact factor of 100 or more can supervise as many Ph.D. students as they wish.
13. REVISION OF REGISTERED COURSE:
13.1 A student may be permitted to revise her Course Registration Form (GS-10) within 20 days from the commencement of classes. After this period, she may be allowed to revise Course Registration Form up to 28th day from the commencement of classes on payment of Rs.1,000/- as Course Registration Form (GS-10) revision fee.
13.2 he students of first semester may be allowed to revise their Course Registration Form (GS-10) within 30 days of the last date of enrollment without any fee.
14. COURSE OF STUDY:
14.1 All post-graduate courses will be designated an appropriate course code and will be preceded by the suitable alphabets indicating the name of the respective department.
14.2 A full time student can enroll up to 15 credit hours in a semester. However, the Vice Chancellor may relax enrollment up to 1 extra course for a semes-ter.
14.3 Out of the total number of credits referred to the Regulation 5.1, only two credit hours each shall be earned through Seminar and one through Special Problem. Out of these two seminars, one should relate to the subject of her research and should be delivered at the time of preparation of synopsis, at university level.
14.4 A course can be repeated three times (enrolled four times) at the most. The Controller of Examinations office will mention corresponding repetitions in the result notification and the student shall mention repetition status in the Course Registration Form (GS-10).
Rules & Regulations PhD Programme
14.5 Transfer of Credits: The Director Advanced Studies, may consider credits earned by a student at another HEC recognized institution, subject to a
maximum of 50 per cent of the minimum credit hours requirements for the degree, on the recommendations of Equivalence Committee provided that:
a. The contents of the course(s) for which credit is claimed, are identical or similar to the course included in her planned course work
b. The course for which credit is claimed has not been used for any other degree.
c. Courses with less than B grade shall not be considered for transfer of credits.
14.6 Students would submit their Course Work Programme during first semester and Synopsis during the 4thsemester of their programme of study.
14.7 A course studied to qualify a degree will not be taken / considered for any other higher degree programme.
14.8 Credit earned for a course shall lapse on the expiry of five years for regular students and seven years for part time students from the end of the semester in which the course was qualified. The Vice Chancellor may revalidate the lapsed courses for special reasons to be recorded.
Explanation: Deficiency course once qualified will not lapse and shall not be called in question again and need not to be revalidated.
14.9 No course shall carry more than 4 credits.
15.1 Examination Fee:
University examination fee shall be charged at the time of enrollment of each semester.
15.2 Tests and Examinations:
a. There shall be two examinations mid and final in each semester. In addition to these examinations, the teacher shall give home assignments and quizzes etc. to the students. The form of these examinations will be left to the teacher who will be solely responsible for the conduct of examination as well as
evaluation in her course. The grade given in the course by the teacher shall be final .
b. Only those students, who have at least 75% attendance in theory and practical separately in each course, shall be eligible to appear in the final examination.
c. A teacher shall report to the Dean/Coordinator/Director/Principal concerned through the Chairperson/Incharge of the concerned Department the namesof students who are absent from the lectures/practical continuously for seven days to enable Director Advanced Studies to strike off names of such students. She may be re-admitted under the university rules or refused admission if the reasons Advanced for readmission are not convincing.
15.3 The final examination for a semester shall be held on a date, time and place to be notified by the teacher in advance.
15.4 To pass a deficiency course, a student is required to obtain at least “C” grade.
15.5 The scripts of each examination shall be discussed with the students.
15.6 The mid-semester examination shall be held during 9th week of the semester which shall carry 30 per cent of the total allocated marks for the course. This examination shall be held by the teacher concerned who shall determine the form of the examination.
15.7 For the purpose of evaluation, one credit will carry 20 marks e.g. a four credit course will carry 80 marks. These marks will be divided in accordance with the credits assigned to theory and practical for each course.
15.8 The following weightage shall be given to the examinations and home assignments;
a. Mid-semester examination 30%
b. Home assignments, quizzes, presentations etc. 20%
c. Final examination 50%
(Fraction in total marks of a course will be rounded to the nearest to one decimal point)
15.9 Rules & Regulations PhD Programme
The duration of examination shall be as under;
Mid-Semester Examination One hour
Final Examination Two to three hours
15.10 Final examination covering the full syllabus with at least 25% of the course of mid-semester as well shall be held at the end of each semester.
15.11 Question paper for the mid and final semester examinations shall be set by the respective teacher. However, Chairperson/Incharge /Principal/ Director/Dean/Coordinator shall ensure the quality and standard of the question paper set by the teacher.
15.12 To qualify a course, it is essential to pass separately in the theory and practical examinations.
15.13 The teacher shall send the final award list along with answer sheets of mid, final and practical for the course to the office of the Controller of Examinations within 10 days after the end of a semester. The Vice Chancellor may condone the delay in result submission. A soft copy of the award list should also be sent to the office of the Chairperson/Incharge Dean/Coordinator/Director/Principal of the College & Director Advanced Studies.
15.14 On receipt of the award lists, the Controller of Examinations shall notify the results and send copies to the Director Advanced Studies, Dean/ Coordinator/Director/Principal and the Chairperson/Incharge of the Departments concerned.
16. GRADE POINT AVERAGE
16.1 Grade point and Equivalence between letter grading and numerical grading shall be as follows:
ble border=”1″ width=”838″ cellspacing=”0″ cellpadding=”0″ align=”center”>
GradeValueMarks (%)Remarks A480 -100ExcellentB365 -79.99GoodC250 -64.99SatisfactoryF0Below 50Fail
16.2 If a student fails to obtain 3.0 CGPA at the end of each academic year (Fall and Spring) her admission shall stand cancelled. However she may seek fresh admission.
Note: The student who avails only one regular semester (Fall/Spring) must obtain 3.0 GPA at the end of the same academic year to remain on roll.
17. COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION:
17.1 A student admitted to the course shall take a comprehensive examination, within two semesters after she has successfully completed the approved course work. (Explanation: The comprehensive examination shall be arranged within 12 weeks while the date, time and venue of examination shall be notified within first week of the termination of each regular semester. A student will have to apply for comprehensive examination on the prescribed form at least four weeks before the examination. If a student does not apply within the specified period or does not appear in the examination, she will be deemed to have availed one chance and failed to qualify in the first attempt).
17.2 The comprehensive examination will cover the complete course work and shall consist of a written part followed by an oral part. It will be designed to ascertain whether the student has attained the breadth of knowledge and the intellectual maturity necessary to become a successful scholar in her chosen discipline. It will not be a mere re-examination of previous courses but will test the students’ ability to integrate and assimilate the knowledge obtained from the courses, seminars and independent studies.
17.3 A student has to apply on the prescribed form for comprehensive examination to the office of the Director Advanced Studies (for 1st and 2nd attempts). In case the student does not apply/appear in the examination, her chance will lapse.
17.4 If a student does not qualify either written or oral part of the comprehensive examination, she shall be eligible to appear in the fail part again but only once and within two semesters from the date of the declaration of the result of the examination.
17.5 A student who has passed the comprehensive examination shall be deemed to have become a candidate for admission to Ph.D. degree
COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION – WRITTEN PART:
17.6 The Controller of Examinations shall, with the approval of the Vice Chancellor, notify the date, time and venue of the examination at least two weeks before the commencement of the examination
17.7 Examiners for the written comprehensive examination shall be appointed by the Vice Chancellor, processed through Controller of Examinations office from a panel of examiners (three for each paper) proposed by respective Board of Studies. The number of papers shall be three.
17.8 Each member shall, within seven days after the receipt of the answer books, return them duly marked to the Controller of Examinations along with the award list.
17.9 To pass the written examination a student must secure 65% marks in each paper separately.
17.10 If a student fails in two or more papers, she will be re-examined in all the papers. In case a student fails in one paper, she can re-appear only in the failed paper but only once within two semesters.
COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION – ORAL PART:
17.11 The students who qualify written examination will be eligible to appear for oral examination.
17.12 The Controller of Examinations shall in consultation with the chairperson of the Panel of Examiners, notify the date, time and venue for the oral comprehensive examination within four months after the date of the declaration of the result of the written comprehensive examination.
17.13 The panel of examiners for Oral will be as under.
i. Supervisory Committee (three to four members)
ii. Chairperson of the department
iii. Dean/Coordinator of the faculty.
iv One nominee of the Vice Chancellor amongst the faculty.
Chairperson of the Panel of Examiners will be appointed by the Vice Chancellor.
17.14 The duration of the oral comprehensive examination will be three hours. All proceedings of the examination will be recorded.
17.15 The chairperson of the Board of examiners shall be responsible for the conduct of the oral examination and shall determine the order in which each member of the board shall put questions to the student. The members are free to ask any number of questions.
17.16 At the conclusion of the oral examination, each member shall separately grade the student and the Chairperson of the Board of examiners shall forward the award list to the Controller of Examinations.
17.17 To pass the oral examinations, a student must secure 65% marks.
17.18 If a student fails to qualify the oral examination, she shall be re-examined only once within two semesters.
18. THESIS SUBMISSION AND DEFENSE:
18.1 A candidate who has passed the comprehensive examination shall be allowed to submit thesis. But, before submission, she will have to defend thesis, at University level through video conference. This presentation shall be evaluated by the Supervisory Committee and if found acceptable, the final submission may be allowed.
SUBMISSION AND EVALUATION PROCEDURE OF THESIS
18.2 The thesis shall be completed according to the guidelines approved by the Board of Advanced Studies and Research and shall be submitted to the office of the Director Advanced Studies within 90 days after the termination of the semester.
18.3 A student shall be entitled to submit thesis for examination after she has qualified the approved courses work, qualified the comprehensive examination written and oral and has also fulfilled the residential requirements. She is required to submit thesis examination fee before the submission of semi-final thesis.
18.4 The thesis shall be prepared according to the guidelines approved by the Advanced Studies and shall be submitted to the office of the Director Advanced Studies
Rules & Regulations PhD Programme
18.5 The colour of hard bound cover of Ph.D. Programme should be dark green with title superimposed in golden.
18.6 The thesis duly certified by the Supervisory Committee that the contents and form of the thesis are satisfactory for submission shall be sent to the external examiner by the office of the Controller of Examinations (CE) for evaluation.
18.7 Two examiners as first choice and two as an alternate in case of being unable to get consent for thesis examination out of the panel of twelve experts (Eight experts from foreign and four from Pakistan) recommended by the respective Board of Studies shall be appointed by the Vice Chancellor for the evalu-ation of thesis. The panel of experts should represent at least 4 Technologically/Academically Advanced Countries.
18.8 The Controller of Examinations shall get the thesis evaluated within four months after the date of submission / re-submission of thesis to her office. Any delay beyond three months must be brought to the notice of the Vice Chancellor.
18.9 The thesis must be an original and scholarly contribution to the knowledge of the candidate’s chosen field of study.
18.10 Each External Examiner shall explicitly state in her report:
a. Whether or not the thesis is of sufficient merit to justify the award of Ph.D. Degree to the candidate.
b. Whether the candidate should be allowed to revise and re-submit her thesis. In the later case the broad lines on which the thesis should be revised must be clearly stated.
18.11 If both the examiners approve the thesis, the candidate shall be recommended for the award of the degree and Viva examination.
18.12 A Ph.D. candidate is obliged to submit three copies of her Ph.D. thesis for evaluation.
18.13 A summary be added showing annotated replies as also verified by the concerned Chairperson /Director.
18.14 The Ph.D. thesis will be placed in the office of the Chairperson/Incharge of the concerned department for one week prior to its submission for foreign evaluation. The suggestion received if in order will be incorporated through the Supervisory Committee.
18.15 If both the examiners reject thesis, the candidate shall be declared as failed. However, the Advanced Studies and Research Board may allow a student to re-conduct her research and re-submit her thesis on a new topic as recommended by her Supervisory Committee. This facility would be available only once within the period of residential requirements i.e. 10-14 semesters.
18.16 If one of the examiners approves the thesis and the other rejects it, it shall be sent to a third examiner, for evaluation. If the third examiner approves the thesis, the candidate shall be recommended for the award of the degree, otherwise she shall be declared as failed.
18.17 If one of the examiners approves the thesis and other is of the view that it is not acceptable in the form in which it has been presented but requires revision, the following procedure shall be followed:
i The Supervisory Committee of the candidate may either:
a. write to the examiners concerned explaining why it is not possible to revise the thesis and taking the position that it should be examined in its original form, or
b. If the views of the examiner were acceptable to the Committee, require the candidate to revise and re-submit the thesis within a period not exceeding two semesters, for re-evaluation.
ii If the examiner approves the original thesis or the revised thesis, as the case may be, the candidate shall be recommended for the award of the degree.
iii In case of disagreement between the Supervisory Committee and the examiner, the matter shall be referred to the Advanced Studies and Research Board which may suggest such action as it may consider expedient.
18.18 If both the examiners express the opinion that the thesis as presented, is not acceptable, but required revision the following procedure shall be adopted:
i In case the lines, on which the examiners have suggested revision of the thesis are substantially the same and are acceptable to the Supervisory Committee, they shall call upon the candidate to revise the thesis on these lines and re-submit it within a period not exceeding two semesters, for re-evaluation. The revised thesis shall then be sent to the examiners.
ii In case the lines on which the examiners have suggested revision are not acceptable to the Supervisory Committee, the matter shall be
referred to the Advanced Studies and Research Board which may suggest such action as it may consider expedient.
iii In case a candidate, who is required to revise and re-submit her thesis, does not do so within the period allowed, she shall be declared to have failed.
18.19 At least one published research paper in a HEC approved “X” category journal (Y in case of Social Sciences) is essential for the award of Ph.D. degree. The financial incentive to the teacher will be redeemable after the publication of the paper. The name of the authors must be from within the Supervisory Committee.
i The expenditure to be incurred on research articles submitted to W category journals will be borne by the University.
ii Finally approved three copies of hardbound Ph.D. thesis along with two CDs. one each for HEC and University Library shall be provided by the student.
18.20 If the thesis, submitted by a candidate for final evaluation, is proved to be copied / plagiarized, it will be liable to be rejected. The admission of such a candidate shall be cancelled and she will not be readmitted to Ph.D. under any circumstances.
18.21 If the thesis of a candidate is proved to be plagiarized after its evaluation and declaration of result, previous result of the candidate will be cancelled and she will be declared to have failed in thesis examination. Such a candidate shall not be re-admitted to Ph.D. under any circumstances.
19. GENERAL REGULATIONS:
19.1 The maximum number of Ph.D students under the supervision of a full time faculty member will be 5 which may be increased to 8 under special circumstances in certain teaching departments subject to prior approval of HEC
19.2 There should be at least three relevant full time Ph.D. Faculty members to launch the Ph.D. programme.
19.3 A candidate who has fulfilled all the requirements prescribed for the course shall be awarded the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
20. PROCEDURE FOR DEFENDING THESIS:
20.1 While defending PhD thesis by a PhD scholar in the absence of Co-supervisor/ Member, the Chairperson of the Department/Director of the Institute in which student is enrolled will sign on behalf of co-supervisor or member. Note: (In case the Chairperson of Supervisory Committee is also a Chairperson of Teaching Department or Director of Institute and is on leave (within country) he must attend the PhD thesis defense and a date in this regard shall be fixed with his/her consultation.
20.2 For “Minor Change” in the title of the synopsis/thesis, a letter from the Supervisory Committee of the student, will serve the purpose.
20.3 In case of major change, the student will have to defend it again at University level and evaluated by the Supervisory Committee.
20.4 The student who enrolls extra semesters beyond the minimum residential period (six semesters) will have to pay full semester fee for each and every extra semester.
i The students who will enroll 9th and 10th semester in their Ph.D. programme will not be allowed hostel accommodation.
ii After submission of the thesis, the students will not be allowed to stay in the University hostels.
The minimum percentage required for the students of all degree programmes to appear in the final examinations is 75%. The students having less than 75% can apply to waive off deficiency through chairperson/Incharges of the department. For this purpose 5% can be waived off by the Coordina- tor/Dean of the respective faculty and further 5% can be waived off by the Vice Chancellor. A student having less than 65% attendance can withdraw only any two courses (without getting fail credit). For that she has to seek permission of the Vice Chancellor through Chairperson/Incharge/Dean/ Coordinator and Director Advanced Studies at least two weeks before the final examinations.